Learning all the different types of cards takes time. Below is a simple introduction. For more details we recommend reading through checklists on sites like Cardboard Connection and Group Break Checklists. And we'll work to get you more content here soon.
Let's start with a great video overview by Dr. Lemco:
Base Cards: Traditional boxes and packs of cards are mostly made up of base cards, which represent the majority of any given set of cards. Each player in a set will have a base card, and there isn’t anything special about these bards cards that are printed in high volume.
Parallel. Variations to the base card in any given set. Often times the picture on the parallel will be the same but it will have a different color scheme (eg gold, green, blue, starburst, etc) or some other distinguishing quality (eg refractors, rubies, precious metal gems, prizm etc).
Insert. A non-base and non-parallel card that stands out from the main cards from the set. It usually has a unique name and different visual design than base and parallel cards.
Autograph. A signature of the athlete depicted on the card. “Sticker auto” is when the athlete signed a sticker that is placed onto the card. "On-card auto" is when the autograph is directly on the card, meaning they handled your card personally, making it more valuable than sticker autos.
Relic, Memorabilia, Patch. A card that includes a piece of authentic player or game material such as a piece of a jersey, a ticket stub or other venue item, a shoelace or other random piece. Patch's are the most common and the more visually appealing the patch (ie the more colors and texture including parts of the name or logo) the more valuable.
Serial Numbered. Certain parallels, inserts, patch and autographed cards are produced in limited quantities. Serial numbered cards show the unique serial number of the card (X) and the total number of cards produced (Y), shown on the card as X/Y. The most rare cards have only produced are called "one of ones" and may be depicted as 1/1. Cards can be /1, /3, /5, /10.... /299 etc.